“Hey guys!”/ “Ladies and gentlemen”

“Good morning guys, how is everyone doing today?”


“Hey guys, what’s up?”

These would be some common greetings to a group of people, but not necessarily only men.

“Guy” is a casual expression for “man” and is used quite often.

“Who’s the new guy in accounting? He looks smart.”

a “guy”

The female counterpart is “gal”, but that expression isn’t very common anymore. It sounds old fashioned and quaint, something I expect to hear in a movie from the 1940s or 50s. “Guys and gals” sounds very old fashioned.

a “gal”

When you address a group of people of mixed gender you could say “Ladies and gentlemen” but that is very formal.

“Good morning ladies and gentlemen, and welcome to our fundraiser”


In non-formal situations you can use “everyone” or “everybody” when addressing a large group.

“Good morning everyone, ready to start today’s lesson?”


But sometimes you are talking to a small group, or you want to sound casual and friendly. So even though it is not proper grammar you will often hear people just call a mixed group “guys”.

“Good morning guys, how is everyone doing today?” could be a boss talking to employees, or a teacher talking to students in a causal way.

“Hey guys, what’s up?” could be you meeting a small group of friends, that is either all male, or mixed gender.


However the singular word “guy” still only refers to a man.

“It’s on me”/ “It’s my treat” / “I got this.”

In Western countries it is customary for people to split the bill when having meals. Of course on special occasions, or if someone is feeling especially generous, one person might pick up the entire tab (tab = a record of things ordered by the customer. Pick up the tab = pay for the tab).

So if you really want to pay for a meal, or pick up a bar tab, what are some common expressions?

“It’s on me” is the most common. The “burden of paying” is on me, not you.


“It’s my treat.” is also very common. It’s my treat (free meal) that I am giving to you.


It can also be used as a verb “I’ll treat you to dinner.” This often gets shorted to “Let’s grab dinner. My treat.”

“I got this.” is a much more casual expression, said as you pick up the check from the restaurant table. It means “I got this taken care of” or “I’ll handle this.”


You can use any one you want, there is just a small nuance of difference.

“It’s on me” is like you are doing a favor for the other person.

“It’s my treat” is like you are giving a gift to the other person.

“I got this” is like you are saying that the amount is small and  no problem for you.

There is also usually not too much arguing if someone offers to pay. One refusal is plenty.

A: “It’s on me.”

B: “No really, it’s fine. Let’s split it.”

A: “Nonsense. I insist!”

B: “Ok, thanks.”

It’s not rude at all to accept the offer right away. In fact, if you don’t, you may talk yourself out of a free meal.

A: “Don’t worry about the check, it’s my treat.”

B: “Really, you shouldn’t. Let’s just split it.”

A: “Well ok, if you insist. Let’s each pay half.”

Third Conditional – Fake Past

Third Conditional – Fake Past

The third conditional is not used as frequently as the others, but it is still a good one to know. In this case we are talking about an unreal past (something in the past that didn’t happen) and the result of that condition.

“If I hadn’t drunk so much last night I wouldn’t have had a hangover this morning.”


We use past perfect for the condition (“If + had + participle”) since we are talking about a completed event in the past that doesn’t affect the present. In the main clause we have our modal (would, wouldn’t, might, may…)+ have + past participle.

Wow, I know this one sounds complicated. Just think of it as two fake stories in the past.

“If I hadn’t drank so much last night…”


Fake past, didn’t happen. I actually drank a lot.

“I wouldn’t have had a hangover this morning”


Fake past, didn’t happen. I did have a hangover.


The third conditional is often used to express regret :

“If I hadn’t drank so much last night I wouldn’t have lost my phone”

or to admonish others

“If you had studied for the test you wouldn’t have failed.”

“If” Part 3- Second Conditional

Second Conditional – Fantasy

The Second Conditional deals with if-clauses that are unreal. We use it for hypothetical situations, unlikely situations or impossible situations.

Hypothetical: “What would I do, if I lived until I was 130 years old?”


Unlikely: “If I won the lottery, I would buy a car.”


Impossible: “If I were an animal, I would be a tiger.”



These sentences are not facts like zero conditional (I have never had this exact experience) and they are not predictions like first conditional (I don’t think these things are likely to happen).

The Second conditional is just fantasy. The “if” part is always something that is not true right now.

The Second conditional looks like it is in past tense, but it actually isn’t. It is in the “subjunctive mood”. It’s a little complicated, but just know that the Subjunctive isn’t talking about past, present or future – it is just a fantasy situation with no relation to time. It looks almost exactly like past tense, except that the be-verb is always “were” (never “was”).

Zero Conditional

“If I win the lottery I buy a car” = fact =  this person has won the lottery many times, and every time they did they bought a car. This sounds strange.

First Conditional

“If I win the lottery I will buy a car” = prediction = this person has probably bought a lottery ticket and thinks they will win in the future.

Second Conditional

“If I won the lottery, I would buy a car.” = fantasy = This person hasn’t won the lottery, they are just having a fantasy thought.


“If” Part 2 – First Conditional

First Conditional – Predictions

The 1st conditional is very common, we use it for situations that are likely to occur. As with all conditionals there are two parts: the conditional clause and the main clause. The conditional clause will start with the word “if”.

If I drop my phone, it will break.”

drop phone 4.jpg

“If I drop my phone” is the condition. You are saying that if that happens then the result will be the main clauseIt will break.

“If I drop my phone” is in present tense because you are talking about a real action that could happen now.

The result is in future tense, because we think that result will happen after.

Unlike the zero conditional, which states general facts or results that are always true, the first conditional deals with specific incidents. These situations haven’t happened yet, but they are possible and likely.

Zero Conditional:

When I drop my phone it breaks.” = “Every time I drop this phone it always breaks” = I have experienced dropping this same phone in the past, and so I know what the result will be.


First conditional:

If I drop my phone, it will break.” = “If I drop my phone now, it will break as a result” = I have never dropped this phone, but based on my knowledge (similar experience, logic etc.) I think I know what will happen.



The main clause uses future tense because that’s what we use for likely events.

I will go swimming tomorrow.” This hasn’t happened- but it is a likely plan.

“If it doesn’t rain, I will go swimming tomorrow.” We have the same sentence, but now with a condition.

“If” Part 1 – Zero Conditional

In English there are many times we use the word “if”. These sentences are called “conditionals”.

There are four types:

  1. Zero Conditional

“If I drink too much coffee I can’t sleep”

drink coffee 5.jpg

  1. First Conditional

“If I drop my phone it will break”

drop phone 4.jpg

  1. Second Conditional

“If I won the lottery, I would buy a car.”

lotto 6.jpg

  1. Third Conditional

“If I hadn’t drunk so much last night I wouldn’t have had a hangover this morning.”

drink 6.jpg


All of these sentences have two parts. There is the conditional (the “if” part) and the result.

The order doesn’t matter.

“If I drop my phone it will break” is the same as “My phone will break if I drop it.”

All of these conditionals have different meanings. We will look at them one by one

Zero Conditional – Facts

“If I drink too much coffee I can’t sleep”

drink coffee 5

In this sentence we have the condition “If I drink too much coffee” then we have the result “I can’t sleep.”

The condition is in present tense. The result is in present tense.

In English we use present tense for things that are always true (“I am Canadian”) or things that happen again and again regularly (I exercise everyday).

Zero conditional sentences aren’t really conditionals. They are basically just facts. You don’t even need to use the word “if”. You can replace it with “when”, “whenever” or “every time”.

If I watch that movie I cry.

When I watch that movie I cry.

Every time I watch that movie I cry.

We use this grammar when we have experienced something in the past and it was true, so we think that it will be true always. You are not talking about the future, or a plan, you are just stating a fact.


Next time: First Conditional

“That doesn’t sound like___”

“Did you hear that Jack got 100% on the math test?”

“Really, that doesn’t sound like Jack”


“That doesn’t sound like ____” is  a way of showing disbelief or doubt at something.

“That doesn’t sound like Jack” = “That doesn’t sound like something Jack would do.”

The phrase isn’t focused on any sound that Jack makes, it’s about whether the story about Jack sounds true. We use it when we hear about someone doing something that is against their nature.

“Trump just apologized for his rude comments on Twitter.”

“That doesn’t sound like him.”


We can also use in the opposite way “That sounds like ____” when they do something that is typical of what we know of their personality. This can be used in a positive way:

“Jane didn’t go on vacation this year. Instead she gave the money she had saved for vacation to charity.”

“That sounds like Jane.” This means “That sounds like a story that is true about her, because I know she is kind.”

It can be used in a negative way too:

“Did you hear that Jack cheated on the math test?”

“That sounds like Jack.” = “I know that Jack is a cheater.”


아래있는 영상에 이 표현이 있어요. 보잭 홀스만은 “Washed up actor” (인기있던 시대가 지냈고 더 이상 유명하지않는 배우)이고  다이앤이라는 전기 작가이랑 이얘기 하고 있어요:

Here’s a clip from a TV show that has this phrase. Bojack Horseman is a washed up (no longer popular or successful) actor talking to Diane, a woman who is writing a book about him.


Diane: you told me to come at 9
Bojack: That doesn’t sound like me
Diane (reading phone) :Why don’t you come over Tuesday morning at 9.
Also you should bring this email because I might not remember it because just took a bunch of horse tranquilizers, haha. Also, please don’t put in my book that I use horse tranquilizers”. Then I think you fell asleep on the keyboard, because it just says the letter “b” twenty seven times

Bojack: That does sound like me.


In this clip Bojack says that meeting someone at 9am “doesn’t sound like him”, he doesn’t think he is the kind of person that would make an early appointment.

At the end of the clip Diane says that Bojack had taken drugs and fell asleep on his computer keyboard, to which Bojack says “That does sound like me.” He thinks he is that kind of person.



Bojack Horseman is a strange show, and definitely not for kids. But it can be funny and sad. Check it out on Netflix if you want.