As I mentioned in another recording unstressed vowels in English sometimes end up with the schwa “[ə]” sound. This can lead to the written forms and spoken forms seeming very different. I’ll show you some written forms (which you could use in speaking if you want to emphasize every syllable) and spoken forms (which can be used in chatting or texting).
“You should have studied harder for the test.”
“You shoulda studied harder for the test.”
“I could have been a doctor if I wasn’t afraid of blood”
“I coulda been a doctor I wasn’t afraid of blood”
“I would have invited you if I knew you were in town.”
“I woulda invited you if I knew you were in town.”
Note: even many native speakers get confused with the written forms of these ones. The contracted forms “Should’ve, could’ve, would’ve” are often misspelled as “Should of, could of, would of”. If you see this, it is wrong.
On the surface these two sentences may seem to have similar meanings. You will notice a difference in tone (the word stress in the sentence) however. “Funny” can mean “comical or humorous, able to make someone laugh” or it can mean “strange, weird, off-putting.”
This second definition is less common, it is used when you are not 100% sure if there is a problem with a person, thing or situation – but you get a feeling something is wrong.
“I’ve got a funny feeling about this.” Is a common phrase to hear someone say in a horror movie as they enter a scary situation.
“My science teacher seems funny. Not funny ‘ha,ha’ , funny ‘weird’.” Is the way you might describe someone that seems strange or unusual. The “Not funny ‘ha,ha’ , funny ‘weird’” part is sometimes added for clarification.
“My shoulder has felt funny since the baseball game last week,” would be a way to say that there is a little pain, or an unusual feeling in the shoulder.
It’s important to note that most things that are comical or humorous are also “funny” and enjoyable because they are strange or unexpected. So the definitions are actually related.
The best way to tell the difference is just by context and tone.
“A stranger just came up to me out of the blue and gave me twenty dollars. It was really strange.”
“My girlfriend just broke up with me out of the blue.” (
여자친구가 난데없이 저를 졌어요. )
Sometimes something happens “out of the blue” or someone says something “out of the blue”, this means that it was completely unexpected.
This idiom originates with the sky. The idea is that when weather is normal the sky is blue, but when bad weather happens the sky usually changes color, or clouds form. Then from that dark sky you can get rain, thunder or lightning. Imagine though that the sky was completely clear and blue and then in an instant it started raining. Or that from a clear blue sky there was a bolt of lightning. It would be very unexpected for bad weather to happen “out of the blue” sky.
We wouldn’t use this expression for something that was expected. This sentence wouldn’t work “I knew the guy liked me and he was always flirting with me, and today he asked me out out of the blue.” A situation like that isn’t unexpected.
Also, we wouldn’t use it for something extremely tragic “My grandfather died out of the blue.” Would be too light. Idioms are not formal enough for extremely serious situations. “My goldfish died out of the blue” might be fine, if you weren’t too attached to the pet.
“I’m feeling under the weather” “Jane is sick today, she can’t come to class.” “My grandfather is ill.”
All of these sentences have similar meanings, but let’s take a look at the differences.
First off “Under the weather” is an idiom that means “sick”. It is believed to come from sailors who had to stay below decks on ships when sick (under the deck and under the weather outside).
Although it has the same meaning as “sick” since you are speaking indirectly through an idiom it is a little less strong. It is also more common to use with softeners like “a little under the weather” when you feel only partially sick.
“Sick” and “Ill” are synonyms, two words that mean the same thing, but we tend to use them a bit differently.
We more often use “sick” for short term things like a cold, flu or food poisoning that last several days.
“Ill” is more often used for long term diseases or hereditary illnesses like cancer.
“I missed work last week because I was sick.” Is common, however “I missed work last week because I was ill” is still grammatically correct and not unnatural -just less common. “My grandfather is sick, he has cancer.” Likewise is not wrong, just a less common use of the word sick.
“Under the weather” though can only be used for short term, temporary things and would never be used for a fatal disease.
There are quite a few different names for facial hair, and it’s sometimes difficult for English learners to keep them all straight (to keep something straight = to remember something properly).
First off having hair only on the space between the upper lip and the nose is called a mustache.
If you have hair on the cheeks and chin it is called a beard.
If you have a mustache and beard, we usually just call it a beard. This is because people usually have both, so saying “mustache” and beard is a bit redundant. To emphasize that the hair covers the whole face (cheek, chin, upper lip) we sometimes call this a “full beard”.
If someone has a beard just on their chin, but not on their cheeks, we call that a goatee. Perhaps because goats also have long hair on their chins?
Side burns are hair that covers the cheek in front of the ears, they usually aren’t very big and often just look like natural extensions of the hair. The superhero “Wolverine” is famous for having thick sideburns.
If a man has no beard at all we say he is “clean-shaven.”
If someone has a bit of short hair on their face that you can see, but it isn’t long enough to be called a beard, we call it “stubble”.
“Oh man, I lost that coupon I had for the coffee shop.” “Well, no use crying over spilled milk.”
Crying over spilled milk (or “spilt” milk in UK English) means to be upset about something bad that happened that you can’t change. The bad thing that happened is usually a minor thing.
The image this idiom evokes for me is a young child who has spilled their glass of milk all over a table and starts to cry about it. Of course crying won’t undo the spill, and it won’t clean it up. It is a fruitless action. Also it is such a minor accident that full-blown crying seems overboard.
If you tell someone “not to cry over spilled milk” you are implying that the problem isn’t major. This can be used to comfort or chide someone who seems too worried about something minor.
“I wanted a chocolate shake, but the clerk said all they had left was vanilla.” “Well, don’t cry over spilled milk. It’s just a drink.”
But be careful not to use it for things that are actually important. “My girlfriend just dumped me.” “No use crying over spilled milk. Plenty of other fish in the sea.” <==Could seem a little insensitive.